武汉/市阿波罗男科医院男科专家综合移动站

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原标题: 武汉/市阿波罗男科医院男科专家网上挂号之家
Say the words #39;therapy session#39; and many people will picture an hour spent on a couch dredging up unhappy childhood memories. A different approach suggests that redirecting the focus onto the present and future can make people happier, healthier and lead to better relationships.说起“心理治疗”这个词,很多人的脑海中会浮现出倚在长沙发上,花一小时来挖掘童年悲惨记忆的画面。而一种与之不同的治疗方法暗示,如果将关注的焦点转向现在和将来,会让人更快乐,更健康,建立更好的人际关系。The method, called Time Perspective Therapy, involves figuring out which of six different outlooks a person has: past-positive (you love the past); past-negative (you have regrets and bad things happened in your past -- or things that you now exaggerate as bad); present hedonism (you enjoy the present and like to reward yourself); present fatalism (you feel that events are beyond your control, so why bother?); goal-oriented future (you plan ahead and weigh the costs and benefits of any decision); transcendental future (you live a good life because you believe the reward is a heaven after death).这种方法被称为“时间观疗法”(Time Perspective Therapy),其中一项内容是判断一个人拥有以下六种不同观念中的哪一些,这六种观念分别是:过去积极时间观(你喜爱自己的过去);过去消极时间观 (你有遗憾或过去发生过不幸的事──或者你有现在被你夸大为不幸的事情);现在享受时间观(你享受当下,喜欢犒赏自己);现在宿命时间观(你感觉命运不受自己控制,那何必费心去控制呢?);目标导向未来时间观(你会事先计划,做任何决定都会权衡利弊);超验未来时间观(你过得很好,因为你相信奖赏是死后进天堂)。The best profile to have, says Philip Zimbardo, psychologist and professor emeritus at Stanford University, is a blend of a high level of past-positive, a moderately high level of future orientation and a moderate level of selected present hedonism. In other words, you like your past, work for the future -- but not so hard that you become a workaholic -- and choose when to seek pleasure in the present. Dr. Zimbardo, an influential thinker in this field who lectures widely, administers a 56-item questionnaire to determine a patient#39;s profile.斯坦福大学(Stanford University)的心理学家、名誉教授菲利普·津巴多(Philip Zimbardo)称,最好的状态是拥有高度“过去积极观”、较高“未来导向观”以及中度选择性“现在享受观”的混合。换句话说就是,你喜欢你的过去,为将来而努力(但也不是过分努力,变成了工作狂),并适时寻求当下的享受。作为该领域颇具影响的思想家,津巴多在许多地方做讲座,他通过一份由56个题项组成的问卷来确定一个人的时间观。The worst time-perspective profile to have is a high level of past-negative coupled with a high level of present fatalism. #39;These people are living in a negative past and think nothing they do can change it, #39; says Dr. Zimbardo, co-author of the book #39;The Time Cure.#39; They also score low on present hedonism and have a low future orientation. People who are clinically depressed or have Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder typically have this profile.最糟糕的时间观状态是高度“过去消极观”与高度“现在宿命观”并存。《时间疗法》(The Time Cure)一书的作者之一津巴多称:“这些人活在消极的过去,认为无论做什么都无济于事。”他们在现在享受及未来导向这两项中的得分也较低。在临床上被诊断为抑郁症以及患有创伤后压力心理障碍症(Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder)的人一般是这种情况。Our individual time perspective is influenced by many things, including family and friends, culture, religion, education and life events. As very young children, we were all pretty much purely hedonistic -- focused on getting what we wanted when we wanted it. Some, but not all, of us become more future-oriented as we get older.个体的时间观受许多因素影响,包括家庭、朋友、文化、宗教、教育和生活事件。在幼儿时期,我们基本上都是纯粹的现在享受型,关注的是满足此时此刻的欲望。一些人(但不是所有人)会随着年龄的增长变得更加着眼于未来。In a famous study in the 1960s, psychologist Walter Mischel, now a professor at Columbia University, tested the ability of young children to resist temptation for a future goal. He placed one marshmallow in front of each child and explained that they could eat it right away if they wanted, but if they waited about 10 to 15 minutes, they could have a second one to eat. About half the children gobbled up the treat right away; the other half managed to hold out for a second marshmallow.现为哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)教授的心理学家瓦尔特·米舍尔(Walter Mischel)在20世纪60年代一项著名的研究中测试了幼童为实现未来目标而抗拒诱惑的能力。他在每个孩子面前放了一块棉花糖,对他们解释说,如果想吃,可以马上就吃,但如果能等待10到15分钟左右,就可以吃到另外一块。约半数的孩子立马就狼吞虎咽地吃掉了棉花糖;另有半数的孩子成功地坚持等来了另一块棉花糖。The time perspective that the children had when they were young had a large impact on the way they behaved later in life. Dr. Mischel followed up with the children when they were teens, and then in middle age. The individuals who resisted the marshmallow at roughly ages 4 and 5 performed better in school, scored an average of about 250 points higher on their SATs and had happier family lives. Those who ate the marshmallow immediately had more emotional problems throughout their lives.孩子幼年的时间观对他们长大后的行为方式有很大影响。米舍尔对这些孩子青少年及中年时的状况进行了追踪研究。四五岁时拒绝棉花糖诱惑的孩子在学校里表现更优秀,在SAT考试中的平均分数高出250点左右,家庭生活也更幸福。而立即就把棉花糖吃掉的孩子一生中会面临更多的情绪问题。The good news, says Dr. Zimbardo: People can change their time perspective. Between 2004 and 2012, Time Perspective Therapy was administered by Dr. Zimbardo#39;s co-authors Rick and Rosemary Sword, therapists in Maui, to 32 veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, all of whom had been through other therapies without positive results. All 32 saw a significant decrease in anxiety, depression and PTSD symptoms.津巴多称,好消息是人们可以改变自己的时间观。在2004至2012年期间,与津巴多共同撰写《时间疗法》一书的里克·索德(Rick Sword)和罗斯玛丽·索德(Rosemary Sword)(夏威夷毛伊(Maui)的心理咨询师)对32名患有创伤后压力心理障碍症的退伍老兵施行了时间观疗法,这些老兵都曾接受过其他治疗,但未能取得积极疗效。经过治疗,这32名老兵的焦虑、抑郁和创伤后压力心理障碍症的症状均显著减轻。A person can raise a past-positive score, Dr. Zimbardo says, by focusing on the good in your past: create photo albums, write letters of gratitude to people who inspired you, start an oral history of your family.津巴多称,人们可以通过关注过去的美好事物来提高过去积极项目得分:创建相册,给激励过你的人写感谢信,或开始一部家庭口述史。Your future orientation can get a boost by organizing your calendar or planning a family vacation, actions that get you to envision and plan for a positive future. And volunteering or becoming a mentor can help you see that your actions can have a positive impact.你的未来导向得分可以通过建立日程表或者规划家庭度假来提高,这些活动都能让你展望并规划积极的未来。此外,从事志愿活动或者成为指导者可以让你看到自己的行动能产生积极影响。And you can increase your present hedonism -- selectively! -- by doing something to balance your mood, such as exercise or a nature walk. Also, reward your hard work with an activity you enjoy: dinner with a friend, a massage, an afternoon playing your favorite sport.你还可以通过一些有助于平衡情绪的活动(比如锻炼或在大自然中散步)来增加现在享受(有选择性的!)。另外,用你喜欢的活动来犒赏自己的辛勤努力:和朋友一起吃饭,,用一下午时间做你最喜欢的体育运动。To lower your past-negative scores you can work to silence your pessimistic inner critic by meditating or to keeping an ongoing list of all the good things in your life right now. #39;It#39;s thinking about what#39;s good in your life now, rather than what was bad in your life then, #39; says Dr. Zimbardo.要降低过去消极得分,你可以进行冥想或者不断记录当前生活中的所有美好事物,让你内心中那个悲观的批评家静音。津巴多称:“要想想你现在生活中的美好事物,而不是过去生活中悲惨的东西。”And you can reduce your future fatalistic perspective by learning a new skill or hobby that allows you to see your change, and doing it with a partner -- it#39;s less isolating and the other person can give you positive feedback.另外,要降低未来宿命时间观得分,可以学习能让你看到自己变化的新技能或者爱好,可以和伴侣共同来做──这样就不会那么孤独,对方也能给你积极的反馈。Dominic Monahan not surprisingly had a negative perspective after he was laid off from his job as a project manager at a printing press manufacturer in 2009, and moved into his mother#39;s suburban Chicago basement. He sent out hundreds of resumes -- and landed no interviews. #39;I had no hope and was living in the past, #39; says the 42-year-old. #39;I was y to give up.#39;多米尼克·莫纳汉(Dominic Monahan)曾在一家印刷机生产商担任项目经理,2009年他遭遇了裁员,搬进他母亲位于芝加哥市郊居所的地下室,受这些变故打击,他带有一种消极观念也不足为奇。莫纳汉投了数百份简历──但一次面试机会也没有。42岁的莫纳汉说:“我完全丧失了希望,我生活在过去,我准备放弃了。”Mr. Monahan admits he was always pretty focused on present gratification. He preferred to ride his mountain bike, run, hunt, #39;or do anything#39; instead of studying. He dropped out of college, joined the Navy and held a series of technician jobs after he got out. He says he tried college several more times without graduating.莫纳汉承认,他一直都是相当重视眼前的满足。与学习相比,他更喜欢骑山地车、跑步、打猎,或者“做任何事情”。他大学时中途辍学,加入海军,退役后从事过一系列技术员工作。他说,后来他又试着上过几次大学,但都没有毕业。He tried psychotherapy after he lost his job, but quit because he felt it was just paying someone to listen to him complain. While he didn#39;t try Time Perspective Therapy specifically, his experience shows how the method can help a person recover from a downward spiral.失业后他曾尝试过心理治疗,但后来放弃了治疗,因为他觉得自己只是在付钱给别人听他发牢骚。尽管他没有专门尝试过时间观疗法,但他的经历却显示出这种方法是如何让人摆脱恶性循环的。He eventually gained 60 pounds (eating peanut butter by the spoonful) and began sleeping 18 hours a day. When he outgrew his sweatpants, he says, he decided to turn his life around. He signed up for an online finance degree, and the condensed classes helped him to feel he was making progress. He recently graduated. He also got a temporary consulting job at a company that uses new technology to purify wastewater.莫纳汉最终重了60磅(他一勺一勺地吃花生酱),他开始一天睡18个小时。他说,当他的运动裤穿不下时,他决定彻底改变一下自己的生活。他报名参加一个网上金融学位培训,密集型课程让他感觉到自己在取得进步。最近他毕业了。他还在一家运用新技术 化污水的公司找到了一份临时性顾问工作。He started to exercise and took up the martial art Tae Kwan Do. His instructor, who is also a psychologist, taught him to talk back to his negative inner voice. Now, when he starts ruminating on mistakes he#39;s made in the past, or tells himself there is no hope, he says out loud: #39;Stop . . . This behavior is not going to move us in a positive direction or make us happy.#39;他开始锻炼身体,还开始练跆拳道。他的教练(也是一位心理学家)教他反驳内心的消极声音。现在,当他开始琢磨过去犯下的错误,或者告诉自己没有希望时,他都会大声说:“停……这种行为不会让我们迈向积极的方向,也不会让我们快乐。”Mr. Monahan still lives with his mom. He has lost 35 pounds and says his hunt for a financial analyst position and his goal of achieving more Tae Kwan Do belts keep him focused on the future.莫纳汉仍然和他母亲住在一起。他已经减轻了35磅,他说,他在寻找金融分析师职位,还计划获得更高的跆拳道级别,这些目标使他将注意力集中于未来。The small steps he took all added up and #39;helped me get out of the negative past, be in the present and plan for the future, #39; he says. #39;Over time they started to change my subconscious into believing there is hope.#39;他说,他迈出的每一小步都累积起来,“帮助我摆脱了消极的过去,让我能够活在当下,筹划将来。它们渐渐开始改变我的潜意识,让我相信希望。”A Path to Happiness通往快乐之路To determine what steps people should take to boost their happiness, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory questionnaire asks people to rate 56 statements, including the seven below, as very true, true, neutral, false or very false. For the full quiz, visit www.thetimeparadox.com为确定人们应该采取何种措施来获得更多快乐,津巴多时间观问卷让人们用“极为符合”、“符合”、“中间状态”、“不符合”和“极不符合”来评定对56项陈述(其中包括以下七项陈述)的同意程度。访问网站www.thetimeparadox.com可看到整个问卷。 /201310/262485

年度“时尚黑名单”出炉 贝嫂最没品味A decade after singling out the Spice Girls as fashion atrocities, Mr. Blackwell put just one of them -- Victoria "Posh Spice" Beckham -- at the top of his 48th annual worst-dressed list released Tuesday.The acid-tongued critic who was designing dresses for the rich and famous when he originated the list in 1960, skewered entertainment's biggest stars in the latest compilation of fashion follies, including Fergie, Kelly Clarkson, Lindsay Lohan and Jessica Simpson.Blackwell heaped venom on Beckham, his No. 1 choice on the list."Forget the fashion spice, wearing a skirt would suffice! In one skinny-mini monstrosity after another, pouty posh can really wreck-em," he said in a statement.Blackwell listed the Spice Girls as No. 1 in his 1998 worst-dressed list, deriding the group as "the only spices on the planet that have no taste."The top 10 roll-call of fashion dishonors also included:No. 2. Amy Winehouse -- "Exploding beehives above, tacky polka-dots below, she's part 50's carhop horror."No. 3. Mary Kate Olsen -- "She resembles a tattered toothpick-trapped in a hurricane."No. 4. Fergie -- "Yes, when it comes to couture chaos, guess it's all in a name!"The rest of the top 10 list included Kelly Clarkson, Eva Green, Avril Lavigne, Jessica Simpson, Lindsay Lohan and Alison Arngrim.Missing from the list was Britney Spears, who has made it many times before."I felt that it was inappropriate at this time to make comment, when her personal life is in such upheaval. I hope 2008 is a better year for her," Blackwell said.Blackwell also released a Fabulous Fashion Independents list that included Reese Witherspoon, Jemima Khan, Beyonce, Angelina Jolie, Helen Mirren, Nicole Kidman, Katie Holmes, Kate Middleton, Katherine Heigl and Cate Blanchett. 布莱克维尔第48届年度 “时尚黑名单”于本周二出炉。在“辣”组合被评为该“最差穿着榜”冠军的十年后,布莱克维尔将今年的冠军颁给了“辣”成员之一“高贵辣”维多利亚#8226;贝克汉姆。时尚“毒舌”布莱克维尔从1960年开始编撰该榜,当时他专为社会名流设计时装。今年,圈的一些大牌明星遭到了布莱克维尔的炮轰,其中包括菲吉、凯莉#8226;克拉克森、林赛#8226;洛翰和杰西卡#8226;辛普森。而对于今年的“冠军”维多利亚#8226;贝克汉姆,布莱尔维尔给出了恶毒的评价:“曾经那个时尚的辣不见了,那个辣随便穿件短裙就够时尚!现在爱翘嘴的‘高贵辣’穿着一件又一件紧身的奇装异,简直能把它们给撑爆了。”1998年,“辣”组合被布莱尔维尔评为当年的最差穿着榜冠军,他评价该组合是“地球上唯一没有味道(品味)的香料”。十大最差穿着名人包括:第二名 埃米#8226;怀恩豪斯。点评:“头上顶着炸开的马蜂窝,下面是俗不可耐的波卡圆点,活脱一个50多岁的饭店务员。”第三名 玛丽#8226;凯特#8226;奥森。点评:“像个被困在飓风中的衣衫褴褛的牙签。”第四名 菲吉。点评:“堪称时尚灾难的代名词。”其他几位上榜明星包括凯莉#8226;克拉克森、伊娃#8226;格林、艾薇儿、杰西卡#8226;辛普森、林赛#8226;洛翰和艾莉森#8226;安格里姆。曾多次上榜的布兰妮今年则“幸免于难”。布莱克维尔说:“在这个时候对她评头论足不太合适,现在她的生活一团乱。我希望她2008年能交好运。”布莱尔维尔还公布了一份“时尚佳人名单”,其中包括里斯#8226;威瑟斯彭、杰尼玛#8226;卡恩、碧昂丝、安吉利娜#8226;茱丽、海伦#8226;米伦、妮可#8226;基德曼、凯蒂#8226;赫尔姆斯、凯特#8226;米德尔顿、凯瑟琳#8226;黑格尔和凯蒂#8226;布兰切特。 /200803/31399

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